Peculiarities of a liar

Peculiarities of a speech, indicating a lying speaker and his/her emotional tension.

Truthful statements are always individualized and have unique character. They have more details, events and exact participating bodies. Un truthful statements are more schemes, stereotype, have no details (as famous phrase from a movie the Diamond hand: Got stuck, fallen down, lost consciousness, awakened in gypsum, repeated many times).

When an observer hears: I would never begin to cheat you - he must be ready: truth insurance, especially repeated, usually exactly peculiar to the lying man.

An amount and duration of searching pauses increases before separate words or sentences in general. Frequent pauses is one of basic signs of deception: a liar beats around the bush, taking time to think over his line of behaviour. In particular, a tendency of asking again the question can be marked, repetition of question aloud etc.
We should also sign avoiding direct answer, sometimes excessive working out details, and also long explanation of something what does not require to be explained long time.Answers usually become broken.
Liars uses change of the topic (in order to distract attention from lie told before).

The index of indecision increases - an increase of relation of time of pauses to the time of speech.
The difficulties in formulation of ideas appear - the amount of searching words increase (like well, "ok") the last vowel in words can be stretched.
Words-vermin appear: you know, you see, well etc. (their amount increases twice as compared to ordinary speech because of weakening of control what it says about its quality).
The frequent use of amplifying particles can be noticed (in Russian language).
The use of greater amount of words, expressing uncertainty can be observed.
A big amount of grammatically and the logically incomplete phrases appear.
The period of reaction on the remark of interlocutor increases.
Sometimes liar becomes extra-talkative, more often vice versa he cant get any word out of himself.

Here u can see examples of utterances of bodies guilty in crimes, being in a state of emotional tension:

Well I dont know maybe it could maybe it happened this way
Well me, I am I cannot say anything about that this crime.
Anyway I deny-y my participationwell, not deny as I was there, but me I didnt know about all that.

Talking about the attempts to find the verbal signs of lie we should remind about so-called trap of Brokau. It is named after famous evening news anchorman on NBC, the American TV channel, and popular show of Tom Brokau on TV. Once he described the method of finding out deception: Mostly signs which I pay attention to, are not physical, but verbal. I`m not searching for visual signs of someones lie. I am interested in evasive answers or acute subterfuges.
However one should remember that some people always talk this way. In their case it is not the sign of lie, it is simply their ordinary manner of speech. The possibility of wrong estimation of such people is what we call the trap of Brokau Everybody can get into this trap, if he doesnt know the suspected and does not know his typical behaviour.

It is also necessary always to remember, that the voice itself is much more important for someones description, then words are.

Some signs of lie in voice:

The speech becomes louder and more rapid in compare with the usual for this man manner to talk.

There is a change of a tone of voice: the height of voice of a lying man increases very often, in seldom situations when voice becomes lower in comparison with his usual voice.

A stammer can be observed, not characteristic for this man before (more often in the beginning of phrase).

The short coughing, not characteristic for this mans usual manner of talk, is marked.

But however its easier to pay attention to words then to the face of speaker.

Signs of lie in mimicry and face:

Vegetative reactions are marked: face turning red, twitch of lips etc.

Usually a liar turns away his eyes, trying not to meet eyes to eyes with an interlocutor, hardly holds the look of interlocutor, turns his eyes aside, avoids to look eyes to eyes, (sometimes vice versa, a liar looks at an interlocutor straight and does not take an eye from him).

Sometimes a liar have eye tics (twitch of eyelid etc.), the too frequent blinking can be also marked.

Quite often pupils quickly go down in the right lower corner of eye.

Sometimes there is sharp expansion of pupils: the more a man is excited, the more his pupils are broadened.

Squinting, narrowing of eyes while answering the questions can be observed.

In addition to all the other things it is necessary to pay attention to the plastic of body.

Movements of a man testifying his insincerity:

Covering the mouth with hand.

Touching nose or ear.

It shouldnt be forgotten, that a nose or ear can simply begin to itch. But, as a rule, a man scratches his nose quickly and purposefully, and if this motion lasts long enough or not very quickly, you should be on guard.

Rubbing of eyelid, scratching and rubbing the ear, neck, head.

Sorting out, tousling, twisting anything (beads, hair etc.).

Men often try to weaken the knot of tie, draw off a shirt-band.

Absence of inclination of head aside.

When a man tells the truth, his head is usually inclined (sometimes a bit) to the right or to the left. But as soon as he begins to lie - landing of head becomes direct, tense.

Aspiration to take the smallest part of place, pinning hands to a body, screwing feet and shrivelling.

Fidgeting.

Shrugging.

However it should be remembered that, for example, Merlin Monroe often shrugged, to look more sexual and to give a sign other, that she is ready to communicate, not because of lie.

Crossing of hands, twisting the body with hands.

Absence of showing the opened hands.

Swinging arms, bending fingers, its warming-up, making figures of it.
Surplus motions by feet, their tension and weakening, up-stroke an ankle and downward, thrusting out of instep, tapping with a toe without taking a heel from a floor.

Nervous twitch or waggle a leg, any other rhythmic motions.

Crossing the feet (often in ankles).

One of the problems is a plenty of information which it is necessary to get and work out at once.
It is always necessary to remember that there are no absolute signs of lie - there are no even a single gesture, mien or involuntary reduction of muscles, which can exactly say that the man lay.

That is why the behaviour of a man should be every time interpreted very carefully, in order not to fail, not to face so-called error of Othello, when the hero of the same named play of Shakespeare, seeing scared Desdemona, was not able to understand that this was fear of innocent victim, but not mean traitor.

Othello and Desdemona

So the error of Othello is observed at the prosecution of truepenny, not participating in crime, but the fact of prosecution cause by the strongest emotional tension which can be interpreted as fear of exposure by mistake, although actually it is fear to be blamed in not committed crime.
Thus, estimating verbal and nonverbal information, it is necessary always to remember that though it often allows to notice displays of lie, however its not possible to make base of it in diagnostics, and it is necessary to take into account information, registered by polygraph, in order not to get in the trap of Brokau and not make an error of Othello.

Lie Detector Krivoy Rog «Anti-lie» 2011
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