Some historical facts

Polygraph in old times

In ancient times on East a rice flour was widely used as a lie-detector. Some observations are taken as a source for this method. It was noticed that in the period of strong fear the selection of saliva in the mouth stops. For the estimation of this state rice flour was put to the mouth of suspected. If after the certain time pass it stayed dry, the suspected considered being guilty. This "hardware" was more perfect for a lie detection then subjective estimation of tribe’s leader. At the same time dryness in the mouth can be caused not only by fear of atonement for a committed crime, but simply by fear, caused by fear of procedure.

More "informing" was a lie-detector with the use of donkey. This stubborn animal for the millennium of its existence never supposed that a man would give it a role of determinant of truth. "Testing procedure" was next. In a half-dark apartment there was a bound donkey, with a tail dirty with a paint. The suspected was given a task: to enter the apartment and stroke a donkey on a tail. If a donkey will scream - the "inspected" means guilty.
The creators of this "lie-detector" were convinced, that the man, committing crime will afraid to pet a donkey, - what if

it will begin to cry suddenly. Therefore, hands will stay clean.
More cruel method of truth exposure was used in ancient Sparta. Spartan youths, had to pass a certain selection before getting to the special schools. The young fellow was put on a rock above a precipice and asked whether he is afraid. An answer was always negative. But a true or lie was said by the testified subject, was determined by the colour of face. If the fellow was pale - he lied. This type of reaction according to Spartans, meant that the fellow can’t be adroit and sharp in a fight and he was thrown down from a rock.

Many years of supervisions helped Spartans to do a just conclusion: a man, turning pale from fear, can not be a good warrior.

In Ancient Rome the same method was used for body-guards selection. Provocative questions were set before a candidate. If he blushed, he was taken in a guard. It was considered that if a man blushes at putting him provocative questions, he won’t participate in plots.

In the African tribes they used their own method to determine who is "guilty". A sorcerer accomplished the special dance round the suspected. Intensively sniffing around, an "investigator" concluded on the saturation of smell of body, which of "suspected" is guilty in the commission of the investigated crime.
On near east at ancient times the indexes of pulse of suspected were used as a "lie-detector». The change in frequency of pulse and peculiarities of blood fulfilling of artery (pulsations) were taken as informing signs. A method was used for the exposure of not faithful wives and determination of personality of lover. The method of verification was maximum simple. The specially trained man put a finger to the artery, and questions with the names of men, who theoretically could have intimate connection with the suspected personality, were asked. As a result of strong emotional tension, as a reaction for the name of a lover, the suspected had quick changes in frequency of pulse and blood fulfilling of artery.

In future this method was used also for solving other tasks, for example to define the degree of sincerity of one or another man if necessary.
The method of testing used in the past, in future became a "searching method" and presently widely used in practice of "lie detection". There was experience of the tremor use for determination of involvement of the suspected in committing the crime. An examinee were given the very fragile egg of bird in hands and they were conducted an interrogation for the purpose of making any non-legal action by them. Whose shell burst, that was considered participating to the commission of the investigated crime. In a period, comprising the primitive communal system and more late - stone and bronze age, the low level of civilization could not be instrumental in creation of "powerful hardware" for determination of participation of suspected in the crime. Level of civilization, epoch in which it existed, put an imprint on the systems of receipt of information about a "true" and "lie" of man.

First polygraph, suitable for investigation of crimes, was created by John Larsenom in 1921. This device registered a pulse, pressure of blood and breathing on a moving paper ribbon. In spite of the progressiveness, it was yet far from modern polygraphs. Introduction of channel of registration of a skin resistance in 1926 by L.Killer considerably promoted exactness of prognosis during the lead through of polygraphological inspections. Killer’s polygraph was used in the Chicago laboratory of investigations of crimes created by him. By 1935 he investigated about 2000 suspected in crimes. It was he who first registered the 5-degree tremor. If Lombrozo is considered to be the creator of the first polygraph, then Killer is a creator of a modern polygraph. On the different stages of perfection of Killer’s polygraph certain scientists tried to register up to 19 indexes (breathing, tremor, frequency of pulse, skin resistance and other). And, nevertheless, on the eventual stage modern polygraph registers from 5 to 7 indexes only, thus, 5 from them were first entered by Killer, and further polygraph development went on the way of increase of exactness of the registered indexes and to development of new methods of testing.

Fragments from the book of V.A. Varlamov "Advanced personnel verifications".

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